Observation – S4

S4 Observation

Scope note:

This class comprises the activity of gaining scientific knowledge about particular states of physical reality gained by empirical evidence, experiments and by measurements. We define observation in the sense of natural sciences, as a kind of human activity: at some Place and within some Time-Span, certain Physical Things and their behavior and interactions are observed, either directly by human sensory impression, or enhanced with tools and measurement devices. The output of the internal processes of measurement devices that do not require additional human interaction are in general regarded as part of the observation and not as additional inference. Manual recordings may serve as additional evidence. Measurements and witnessing of events are special cases of observations. Observations result in a belief about certain propositions. In this model, the degree of confidence in the observed properties is regarded to be “true” per default, but could be described differently by adding a property P3 has note to an instance of S4 Observation, or by reification of the property O16 observed value. Primary data from measurement devices are regarded in this model to be results of observation and can be interpreted as propositions believed to be true within the (known) tolerances and degree of reliability of the device. Observations represent the transition between reality and propositions in the form of instances of a formal ontology, and can be subject to data evaluation from this point on.

Examples:

No example yet.

In First Order Logic:

  • S4(x) ⊃ E13(x)
  • S4(x) ⊃ I1(x)

Scope Notes

Show Scope note Language Namespace View details Comments
This class comprises the activity of gaining scientific knowledge about particular states of physical reality gained by empirical evidence, experiments and by measurements. We define observation in the sense of natural sciences, as a kind of human activity: at some Place and within some Time-Span, certain Physical Things and their behavior and interactions are observed, either directly by human sensory impression, or enhanced with tools and measurement devices. The output of the internal processes of measurement devices that do not require additional human interaction are in general regarded as part of the observation and not as additional inference. Manual recordings may serve as additional evidence. Measurements and witnessing of events are special cases of observations. Observations result in a belief about certain propositions. In this model, the degree of confidence in the observed properties is regarded to be “true” per default, but could be described differently by adding a property P3 has note to an instance of S4 Observation, or by reification of the property O16 observed value. Primary data from measurement devices are regarded in this model to be results of observation and can be interpreted as propositions believed to be true within the (known) tolerances and degree of reliability of the device. Observations represent the transition between reality and propositions in the form of instances of a formal ontology, and can be subject to data evaluation from this point on. en 0

Examples

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Additional notes

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Identifier : S4

Labels

Label Language Last updated View details Comments
Observation * en 2018-06-22 0

* : Standard label for this language

Namespace

Namespace Last updated
CRMsci version 1.2.3 2019-04-02

Parent classes

Class Justification Root namespace View association
E13 Attribute Assignment CIDOC CRM
I1 Argumentation CRMinf: An Extension of CIDOC-CRM to support argumentation

Ancestor classes

Class Depth Root namespace
E1 CRM Entity 6 CIDOC CRM
E1 CRM Entity 7 CIDOC CRM
E1 CRM Entity 8 CIDOC CRM
E2 Temporal Entity 5 CIDOC CRM
E2 Temporal Entity 6 CIDOC CRM
E4 Period 4 CIDOC CRM
E4 Period 5 CIDOC CRM
E5 Event 3 CIDOC CRM
E5 Event 4 CIDOC CRM
E7 Activity 2 CIDOC CRM
E7 Activity 3 CIDOC CRM
E13 Attribute Assignment 2 CIDOC CRM
E92 Spacetime Volume 5 CIDOC CRM
E92 Spacetime Volume 6 CIDOC CRM
E92 Spacetime Volume 7 CIDOC CRM
Thing 7 The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary
Thing 8 The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary
Thing 9 The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary
SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume 5 CRMgeo: a Spatiotemporal Model
SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume 6 CRMgeo: a Spatiotemporal Model
Feature 6 GeoSPARQL
Feature 7 GeoSPARQL
SpatialObject 7 GeoSPARQL
SpatialObject 8 GeoSPARQL
S15 Observable Entity 6 CRMsci: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support scientific observation
S15 Observable Entity 7 CRMsci: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support scientific observation

Childs and descendant classes

Class identifier Depth Root namespace
S3 Measurement by Sampling 2 CRMsci: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support scientific observation
S19 Encounter Event 1 CRMsci: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support scientific observation
S21 Measurement 1 CRMsci: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support scientific observation
A1 Excavation Process Unit 1 CRMarchaeo: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support the archaeological excavation process
A9 Archaeological Excavation 1 CRMarchaeo: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support the archaeological excavation process

Related classes

Relation Class Justification Defined in namespace View details

Outgoing properties (this class is domain)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
S4 Observation O16 observed value (value was observed by) E1 CRM Entity CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation O8 observed (was observed by) S15 Observable Entity CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation O9 observed property type (property type was observed by) S9 Property Type CRMsci version 1.2.3

Outgoing properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) P1 is identified by E41 Appellation CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) P2 has type E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) P3 has note E62 String CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) P48 has preferred identifier E42 Identifier CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) P137 exemplifies E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) L47 has comment E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) L4 has preferred label E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) L53 is not uniquely identified by E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) geovP7 existence is deduced from geovC7 Data entity Geovistory ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) geovP12 same as E1 CRM Entity Geovistory ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) geovP13 derived from E1 CRM Entity Geovistory ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) histP31 time-independent entity association E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P4 has time-span E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P114 is equal in time to E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P115 finishes E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P116 starts E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P117 occurs during E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P118 overlaps in time with E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P119 meets in time with E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P120 occurs before E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) histP1 involves E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) histP29 is component of E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) histP30 has identity defining component E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period) P7 took place at E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period) P8 took place on or within E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period) P9 consists of E4 Period CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E4 Period) Q1 occupied SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume CRMgeo version 1.2
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) P11 had participant E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) P12 occurred in the presence of E77 Persistent Item CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) O13 triggers (is triggered by) E5 Event CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) O14 initializes (is initialized by) S16 State CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) histP18 has event type histC4 Event type CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P14 carried out by E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P15 was influenced by E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P16 used specific object E70 Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P17 was motivated by E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P19 was intended use of E71 Man-Made Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P20 had specific purpose E5 Event CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P21 had general purpose E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P32 used general technique E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P33 used specific technique E29 Design or Procedure CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P125 used object of type E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) P134 continued E7 Activity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) socP3 realized (duplicate, delete) socE2 Activity Plan CRMsoc version 0.1 ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) L29 has responsible organization E40 Legal Body CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) L30 has operator E21 Person CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) L34 has contractor E40 Legal Body CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) L35 has commissioner E40 Legal Body CRMdig version 3.2
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) socP15 realised (was realised by) socE2 Activity Plan CRMsoc version 0.1 ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) readP8 has frequency R18 Frequency READ-IT ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) readP9 has intensity R17 Intensity READ-IT ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) has outcome readP20 R1 Outcomes READ-IT ongoing
S4 Observation (is a E13 Attribute Assignment) P140 assigned attribute to E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E13 Attribute Assignment) P141 assigned E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P10 falls within E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P132 overlaps with E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P133 is separated from E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P160 has temporal projection E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P161 has spatial projection E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S4 Observation (is a Thing) topObjectProperty Thing The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary (OWL 2)
S4 Observation (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) Q3 has temporal projection SP13 Phenomenal Time-Span CRMgeo version 1.2
S4 Observation (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) Q4 has spatial projection SP2 Phenomenal Place CRMgeo version 1.2
S4 Observation (is a S15 Observable Entity) O12 has dimension (is dimension of) E54 Dimension CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation (is a I1 Argumentation) J2 conclued that I2 Belief CRMinf version 0.7

Incoming properties (this class is range)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace

Incoming properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E1 CRM Entity geovP12 same as S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) Geovistory ongoing
E1 CRM Entity geovP13 derived from S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) Geovistory ongoing
E1 CRM Entity histP31 time-independent entity association S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity P114 is equal in time to S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P115 finishes S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P116 starts S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P117 occurs during S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P118 overlaps in time with S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P119 meets in time with S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P120 occurs before S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity histP1 involves S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity histP29 is component of S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity histP30 has identity defining component S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
E4 Period P9 consists of S4 Observation (is a E4 Period) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period Q1 occupied S4 Observation (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) CRMgeo version 1.2
E5 Event O13 triggers (is triggered by) S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CRMsci version 1.2.3
E7 Activity P134 continued S4 Observation (is a E7 Activity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P15 was influenced by S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P17 was motivated by S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P20 had specific purpose S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P140 assigned attribute to S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P141 assigned S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E16 Measurement P39 measured S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E17 Type Assignment P41 classified S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing Q2 occupied S4 Observation (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) CRMgeo version 1.2
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing P62 depicts S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E31 Document P70 documents S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E32 Authority Document P71 lists S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E36 Visual Item P138 represents S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E73 Information Object geovP2 mentions S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) Geovistory ongoing
E83 Type Creation P136 was based on S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P129 is about S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P67 refers to S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P10 falls within S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P132 overlaps with S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P133 is separated from S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E93 Presence P166 was a presence of S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
TyIn104 Présence objet_(être_l')_|_Présence S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) symogih.org ontology v.1.3 ongoing
histC1 Time-related Persistent Item Characteristic histP2 was initiated by S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
histC1 Time-related Persistent Item Characteristic histP3 was terminated by S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
histC2 Geographical localisation histP12 is location of S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
Thing topObjectProperty S4 Observation (is a Thing) The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary (OWL 2)
F29 Recording Event R20 recorded S4 Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F35 Nomen Use Statement R38 refers to thema S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F40 Identifier Assignment R45 assigned to S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F51 Pursuit R59 had typical subject S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F52 Name Use Activity R63 named S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
SP7 Declarative Spacetime Volume Q12 approximates S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CRMgeo version 1.2
SP11 Temporal Reference System Q19 has reference event S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CRMgeo version 1.2
histC10 Appellation for language histP9 isAppellationOf S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing
S4 Observation O16 observed value (value was observed by) S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation O8 observed (was observed by) S4 Observation (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S6 Data Evaluation O11 described (was described by) S4 Observation (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S21 Measurement O24 measured (was measured by) S4 Observation (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S22 Segment of Matter O23 is defined by (defines) S4 Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CRMsci version 1.2.3
geovC1 [Geovistory] Digital geovP11 refers to S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) Geovistory ongoing
D2 Digitization Process L60 documents S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMdig version 3.2
D29 Annotation Object L43 annotates S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMdig version 3.2
socE3 Intention to Apply socP13 was initiated by (initiated) S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CRMsoc version 0.1 ongoing
socE3 Intention to Apply socP14 was ended by (ended) S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CRMsoc version 0.1 ongoing
geovC7 Data entity geovP8 corresponds to S4 Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity) Geovistory ongoing
histC25 Participation histP27 is participation in S4 Observation (is a E5 Event) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, v. 0.1 ongoing

Profiles using this class

Label Start date End date Last updated
Silknow generic 2019-09-23

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